Manual A Brief Flash of Nature: 2014 revision

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The general methodology is based on the concepts used to build the HYDE database 61 , Other time points in the past and in the future were calculated based on those baseline maps. For the years between — only the total population and land use at NUTS 3 regional level units 63 is known. Hence, for each time step, the population and the different land use classes was redistributed inside each NUTS 3 region in order to match the regional totals. A database of statistics covering years — at NUTS 3 level was compiled from multiple sources covering population number, percent living in urban areas, persons per households, percent of land covered by croplands and pasture, and area covered by transportation infrastructure.

The land use and population distribution was modified starting from the baseline map as follows. Change in population per urban grid cell was firstly considered proportional to the mean number of persons per household. Surplus population and urban fabric from this procedure was removed starting with grid cells furthest away from urban centres until it reach the total urban population per region recorded in historical statistics.

Then, area covered by industry was changed proportionately to GDP per capita in the industrial sector, in constant prices. Grid cells located furthest from the urban centres were removed first, starting with the baseline map and moving in time from it. Grid cells of road and rail infrastructure were redistributed to match historical statistics on their total length per region, with grid cells reallocated as in case of industry.

Airport land use class in CLC was connected with actual airports mostly through OurAirports database 67 and year of construction was found in Internet resources. Construction sites were removed for maps before , and burnt areas for before , otherwise were kept unchanged. Croplands were redistributed to match their historical area per region. Grid cells with the lowest value of suitability index for agriculture were removed first and grid cells not used economically with the highest suitability index were added first.

Pastures were computed in the same way as croplands, only with replacing the FAO crop suitability index for cereals with index for high-input alfalfa. In cases were land has become unoccupied after the application of the aforementioned procedure, natural land cover typical in the nearest neighborhood of a grid cell was assigned. If there was no natural land cover in the vicinity, forest land cover was assigned. Finally, the population of grid cells which transitioned from urban to non-urban during the calculation was reduced according to a value specific to each land use type.

The non-urban population was changed proportionally to the evolution of mean number of persons per household. The remaining CLC classes ports, dump sites, natural water bodies and courses, glaciers etc. Changes in urban population distribution was validated using a set of 42 population density cross-sections from 19 cities, spanning from to A reasonable match was achieved between reconstructed curves of population density-distance from city center relationship and estimates published in literature see section 3.

Fifty percent of GDP and wealth generated by agriculture without forestry was distributed proportionally among the population living in areas considered agricultural. Production and wealth in forestry sector was distributed as for agricultural, but using forest CLC cells instead of agricultural lands. The value of dwellings was distributed proportionally to the population of any land use class.

The value of infrastructure was uniformly distributed to certain land use classes: roads, railways, airports, ports, and urban fabric. Records of flood events were gathered from many sources, ranging from news report and governmental data to publicly available databases and scientific literature. HANZE database covers the study area for years — Flood events, in order to be included in the database, had to fulfil certain criteria. First, information had to be available for at least one of the four damage statistics area flooded, fatalities, persons affected and monetary value of losses.

In case of fatalities equaling zero, data for any other variable had to be obtainable. Second, the minimum information required about the event was: country, regions affected by the event, year, month, type of event, cause of event. Insignificant floods, which affected only a small part of one region and had no fatalities, were not included in the database. Floods that were caused by insufficient drainage in disconnected urban areas, floods caused entirely by dam failure unrelated with a severe meteorological event, and floods caused by geophysical phenomena were also excluded.

Events affecting more than one country were split in the database per country. However, urban floods caused by inadequate capacity of the sewage system of a city , as well as floods of geotechnical dam failure without an extreme hydrological event and geophysical e. The extent of each flood event was obtained by intersecting a map of regions affected by an event with the flood map from the RAIN project 70 , available from 4TU. ResearchData repository for river 71 and coastal 72 floods. The flood maps are for a year return period and historical scenario — The map does not include flood defences and therefore constitutes all potentially inundated areas.

It should be noted that seven events were not included in the normalization and further analysis due to lack of flood extent data: four flash floods in Malta where river were too small for inclusion in RAIN flood map and three coastal floods in Sicily where no flood risk was indicated in RAIN map.

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As an example we can consider the North Sea flood in the Netherlands, which caused fatalities and 4. It is therefore assumed that the vulnerability is constant within the timeframe of the study and all losses would have changed proportionally to local demographic and economic growth.

Missing information on losses for events recorded in HANZE database was filled based on correlation between the four variables describing flood damages. Normalized values relative to potential damages within a given flood footprint were used. The empirical distribution of each variable was converted to ranks and the joint distribution of each pair of variables was fitted to five types of copulas Gaussian, Gumbel, Clayton, Frank and Plackett For a given event and missing data, the available variable that was most highly correlated with the missing particular sample of the variable of interest was used.

The conditional copula was sampled 10, times to generate samples of the conditional distribution of interest and mean of the conditional damage was used as the estimate of the missing values. The graphs of dependency structures transformed to standard normal space are shown in Supplementary Fig. Underreporting of smaller flood events in the past was estimated by transforming normalized and gap-filled damage statistics with financial losses normalized by wealth only to ranks highest to lowest and dividing the events into quintiles based on their average rank.

For the other four quintiles, the catalog is assumed to be complete only during the most recent period: — During this period, the ratio of events between four lower quintiles to the highest one was 1. For other year time periods —, —29, —59, —89 the ratio is lower, which was considered to be a function of underreporting of less severe floods Supplementary Fig. Hence, reported flood events were multiplied by factors necessary to achieve the same ratios between quintiles as in —, where the highest quintile was not adjusted as we assume the records of most severe floods are complete.

The same factors were applied to multiply flood consequences for all variables. Trends were analyzed using Poisson regression, which is better suited for count data than linear regression 75 , Statistical significance of the trends presented in the paper was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. The trend calculated for a given variable rate parameter of Poisson regression was compared with 10, samples of randomized data series.

Those randomized series were annual number of flood events or their consequences, where each flood event had a randomly assigned year from a uniformly distributed interval , For each of the 10, randomized series the Poisson regression was calculated in order to obtain confidence intervals. To test statistical significance in the normalized data series, we first estimated the uncertainty distribution of past exposure.

It was assumed to be a log-normal distribution fitted to the empirical distribution of change in exposure between given time point and within all NUTS 3 regions. This log-normal exposure distribution was sampled to obtain a random value of exposure per given flood event. This sampling was repeated 10, times for each flood event to generate a set of randomized data series of annual normalized flood losses. This allowed us to compute uncertainty ranges in normalized data series in Supplementary Fig. Then, a randomized data series were further randomized by assigning a year from a uniformly distributed interval , to each flood event, as in previous paragraph.

For gap-filled data series, the uncertainty in the modeled data was further incorporated into significance testing. For each missing value of flood loss for a given event, 10, samples of marginal distribution of that variable obtained during the copula analysis. Like for normalization, the data series incorporating uncertainty of gap-filling were further randomized by assigning a year from a uniformly distributed interval , to each flood event, as in previous paragraph.

Comparison of exposure and flood losses trend was carried out using two Environment Agency EA maps. The flood hazard zones were intersected with population and wealth maps for —, and the recorded outlines since were intersected with the disaggregated baseline population map. Annual losses from Polish sources 78 , 79 , 80 were normalized using national GDP series. It is a global climate reanalysis for — with a 3-h temporal resolution and 2 spatial resolution.

A total of grid cells intersect with the study area, for which daily precipitation amounts were extracted for years — For every grid cell an empirical return period from 10 to years of 3, 6, h and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7-day precipitation was calculated and then the number of events which exceeded this threshold was obtained. Finally, this number of extreme events was weighted by the size of year river flood hazard zones within each grid cell. Trends were also analyzed separately for Mediterranean countries Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain and Portugal and remaining countries in the domain.

However, comparison of trends in the 20th Century Reanalysis with daily gridded observations from E-OBS 81 since shows potential bias in the reanalysis. In E-OBS, trends are quite uniform across time and duration of rainfall, in contrast to much larger variability in the reanalysis. Jongman, B. Increasing stress on disaster-risk finance due to large floods. Change 4 , — Hinkel, J. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise.

Natl Acad. USA , — Alfieri, L. Global warming increases the frequency of river floods in Europe. Earth Syst. Winsemius, H. Global drivers of future river flood risk. Change 6 , — Forzieri, G. Multi-hazard assessment in Europe under climate change. Change , — Paprotny, D. Estimating extreme river discharges in Europe through a Bayesian Network.

Vousdoukas, M. Mudelsee, M. No upward trends in the occurrence of extreme floods in central Europe. Nature , — Kundzewicz, Z. Trend detection in river flow series: 1. Glaser, R. The variability of European floods since AD Rummukainen, M. Changes in climate and weather extremes in the 21st century. WIREs Clim. Change 3 , — Haylock, M. Interannual variability of European extreme winter rainfall and links with mean large-scale circulation. Moberg, A. Indices for daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe analysed for the period — Barredo, J. Normalised flood losses in Europe: — Hazards Earth Syst.

Hall, J. Understanding flood regime changes in Europe: a state-of-the-art assessment. Benito, G. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe. Matulla, C. European storminess: late nineteenth century to present. Feser, F. Storminess over the North Atlantic and northwestern Europe—a review. Schumacher, I. Economic development and losses due to natural disasters: The role of hazard exposure. Schiermeier, Q. Mirza, M. Climate change and extreme weather events: can developing countries adapt? Policy 3 , — Neumayer, E. Normalizing economic loss from natural disasters: a global analysis.

Global Environ. Munich Re. Topics Geo—Natural catastrophes —Analyses, assessments, positions. Innovative new ways of analysing historical loss events. Assessing trends in insured losses from floods in Spain — Stevens, A. Trends in reported flooding in the UK: — Bouwer, L. Have disaster losses increased due to anthropogenic climate change?

Changnon, D. Change 38 , — No upward trend in normalised windstorm losses in Europe: — Daniell, J. Visser, H. But how do we ensure that it is? We are now beginning to find out what works well and not so well when it comes to learning. John Dunlosky from Kent State University in the United States and colleagues carried out a meta study evaluating ten popular learning techniques Dunlosky et al. Here's what they found. In order to receive a high utility rating, the technique needed to be useful in a range of conditions, for a range of learner ages and levels of prior knowledge.

Two techniques came out as clear winners: practice testing and distributed practice. Practice testing refers to any form of testing for learning which a student is able to do on their own. Examples of this technique include practising recall through flash cards, or completing practice problems or tests. Practice is likely to improve learning via a variety of direct and mediated effects - for a further analysis of these, take a look at the paper. The authors also reviewed the dosage - how many practice tests should be taken, and the timing of these.

The other technique which received a high utility rating from the authors, and links to the previous point about spacing out practice tests, was distributed practice.


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Distributed practice refers to distributing the learning over time - in other words, not cramming. The authors cite a number of studies which found that time lags between learning episodes boost learning, despite the fact that people might initially forget more of the material between the individual sessions. So in this case the advice is simple. Start early and ensure that you revisit and review the material you have already revised.

Eight other techniques were reviewed by the authors. Two related study methods which were found to work well were elaborative interrogation and self explanation. Elaborative interrogation is a complex name for a simple concept - asking yourself why something is the way it is or a particular concept or fact is true, and providing the answer. The consequences of this child abuse are far reaching. My heart goes out to those who suffer for any reason, but demanding rights is not the answer. There are more human rights today in our society, and more abundance than any civilization in history Jordan B.

Oh this is NOT one of the examples of offence leading to greatness. No greatness in me. I just had to pee. But there is gratitude. Agree or disagree on the gender spectrum, but no one should be taught to rely on an entire society changing, protest and demand words that they want to come out of another human beings mouth. We should live our individual lives and fuction from a relationship standpoint. My ex husband was abusive and horrible… Did I stick around and demand he speak words that I want him to??

Or did I choose to cut him out of my circle of influence? Many of these issues arise randomly and in tiny human interactions. End relationships, even brief encounters with those who feel toxic to you. In this polical climate an employer will get eaten alive like Star Bucks of they dare mistreat a transperson. But for day to day interactions? It never worked in any human interaction except a dictatorship for one side to scream louder and demand the other side speaks words after being forced by law.

This is the immature problem solving logic of a tantrum throwing child. Iv, clearly you live in a bubble. You are comparing the discomfort of peeing in a hole with the discomfort of living in the wrong body? False equivalency. No where near the same thing, not even close. Then you compare the widespread mistreatment and abuse of transgender people to one bad relationship you had? Again, false equivalency. Totally different. Trans people are abused everywhere they go. Look at this comment section. Look at the percentage of people, including you, who reject trans people.

Thank you, Jorge, for this sane logical response! It sums up what I have read, thought, and felt about the subject quite perfectly, but it expressed so much more coherently than I could have ever tried to! That is insane and how radically far nutz the ideological movement has pressed. This Health Education Framework, which is reviewed in hearings and edited by the Instructional Quality Commission IQC , serves as a guideline for implementing the content standards adopted by the SBE for health education curriculum.

PJI testified at prior IQC meetings in Sacramento in the past several months and works to block controversial content from being pushed on children in the public school system. These are just a few of the many concerning, ideologically-driven aspects of the proposed Framework:. My Princess Boy Chapter 3, pp. Planned Parenthood Chapter 5, p.

A revised airway epithelial hierarchy includes CFTR-expressing ionocytes

Spiritual Abuse Chapter 5, p. Also your statement about there being two genders but people could feel like the other or neither is a simple contradiction. Likewise while a mind may experience a large number of things. A delusional man may think he hears a phone ringing. The phone does not exist except in his mind. Him hearing it does not make it real. Likewise thinking oneself is another gender or not a gender does not make it so. Biologically and neurologically there are more then two genders that what these studies st Harvard and other universities show.

Its true I believe your comment because is based on unification lines of original human beings. I think you hit the nail on the head. I am a cisgender female but have Trans friends. People who know nothing will argue with you because they feel threatened. They have to deny it out of fear that someone will think they are Trans or Gay.

It drives me nuts. Trans people who come out are some of the most courageous people I know. I am sorry where do feelings or damage come into the scientific method? While it may or may not be black and white science is Boolean. It is either true or untrue. Regardless of who is harmed in the process. Actually science is not Boolean….

A means to understand how things work basically. Emotions over logic with this crowd, as usual. The rejection, harassment, and shame imposed on them by an unaccepting society does cause significant mental damage to them, to the point where they are more likely to commit suicide. I think you may be confusing sex with gender, Justin. The fact that we are a sexually dimorphic species means there are two sexes. Gender expectations vary between cultures and can change over time. In other words, abolish the idea of gender altogether.

I agree sort of but according to some biological studies certain intersex is a third sex. Sex isnt as simple or only XY and XX. Gender is a real thing as well. The is psychological evidence of it. Its as real and important to a person as money which has importance due to society. We cannot abolish gender when we naturally have gender identities or not. It seems to make much more sense to just have male, female, and intersex, and then realize that genitals do not necessarily make a person a certain way. Use neutral pronouns for everyone. You are who you are and if you want to reproduce, then you can find someone else who would be compatible for that.

The Who the hell are you to come along as the mere 0. Ever hear of a democracy and the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few. No gender standard will be accepted by all so I say sorry trans but you must adapt to us… the Sam P. As a quick point, the number of cultures that have a 3rd gender would make your statement a lie.

It seems to only be nations ruled by the religions of the book that have failed to recognise the binary. So please, take your assumptions elsewhere. There are 2 genders. That is that. Where have I seen that kind of comment before? I believe you need to stop confusing transvestism aka transgender with transsexualism.

Within the theory of transsexualism sex and gender mean the exact same thing. Gender is just polite way to say sex without implying the reproductive parts of it. I believe I believe you also stated people should stop using the word transsexual. Instead I going you stop misusing it and stop telling people not to use the word. From your comments I have seen enough to call bs on you.

You cannot be a trans woman without also linking being a male to it aka she-male. I just see you as another autogynephillic terf lover helping them trash the word transsexual and the science. Actually, no. Gender and gender expression are not the same thing. Not major structures, not all consistent, but a few of these features are consistent.

An answer to why we want to transition? This is something I posted on a comment in response to a question on a philosophy forum. They seemed to find it helpful, hopefully others will too. Their question, what is gender, and why are people transgender? In society there are 2 major social groups that people belong to, Male and Female, and people that are Transgender were assigned to the wrong group at birth, so they may belong to the other group, neither group, flit between the groups, or be somewhere in the middle. This was a follow up question asking for more information as to why people want to transition.

Because we identify as the other gender, we look around at the media, advertising, porn, people, etc. So for some people that are only slightly affected, being able to dress and identify with that social group may be enough. Hi honey. I completely understand what is your point but there is a conflict in your writings. I am a trans-feminine girl. That would create a confusion. A trans-feminine one and I am proud of that and I will die as a Transgender Girl.

I will never be a Girl and actually never want to. Cause I am trans and I love it. No, it is not a fact that gender is different from sex. There is no definitive study or science that proves that. There is no science that can definitely prove that this is not a mental illness either. The attached study by no means is definitive and it is riddled with pro-trans bias. You can post links, just keep the number at around 3 or less to stop the automatic spam filter caught by that one myself.

You have actually read the original article, where it lays out the scientific underpinnings of gender in the brain, and how it differs from sex? As this comment is especially ignorant on this particular article. That is not even close to what biology is. A big issue here is the same can be said about Gender Dysphoria, and Transgender disorder. The definition changed. This is considered a psychological ailment, and it ought to be. They feel something similar to trans folk. The suicide rate for people with this disorder is just a little larger than trans folk.

Point being I truly believe we should treat people how they want, within reason of course. I mean have manors is all. There are certainly scientists that disagree on the merits and meanings behind certain data, but as a whole science has nothing to do with there being more than 2 sexes, or genders for that matter. And if the argument is that gender is a social construct, then the meaning behind the different genders people claim to have has even less merit.

Even the most introspective and self-aware of us will usually have an initial reaction to become defensive. I mean sorry to come off rudely, but that is not what biology is. Biology can have a huge, or not so huge effect on people. In fact, in most cases it does. Again, you do you. Every one of us. The word gender has changed its definition.

But I would put fourth that if it has no link to sex, then what is it? Is it truly just a social construct like so many have claimed? And if so, then what significance does it have? I was raised by a single mother along with my sister. Where did I learn them? My idols were all artists, though I did live sports and trained my ass off, I seldom actually watched them. You could say it was my friends who instilled these things in me, but most of them were girls growing up. Nor do I think it needs to be.

Gender is different things to different people. It holds different weight. People who admit a lack in evidence, but also give me true insight into what gender identity means to them. If you know who you are, great. And whether you believe me or not I really want to help where I can. Biology has nothing to do with your gender. Does this matter? Do any of these labels matter? That seems to be up to the individual. Personally I find them pedantic and limiting.

Why put yourself in a box, or multiple boxes in this case. And since it has such a loose definition, am I gender fluid because I do stereotypical female things? Do I always have to be eating a steak and punching someone in the face? All of these identity crisis pose a similar issue. I bet there are better things about you than your gender.

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Maybe not. Government and Church have systematically erased them for centuries. As far as the transgendered issue, I believe that this is a mental illness. You can turn a hotdog into a taco, but you will never actually be a woman. Biologically you are and always will be a man. You gender is purely a social construct, much like being goth or a jock or whatever.

You desire to be recognized as a girl is purely social and psychological. You desire for others to recognize you as YOU want them to; not how society tells them they must. But once you step into the locker room or shower with my little girl or wife, we are going to have problems. Like others have said here, gender is different from sex.

They are separated by your sex. Once your clothes are off, there is no difference between you and any other man. Oppression and depression are not synonymous. Black females being one of the most oppressed groups have low depression and virtually non existent suicide rates. So how can society be to blame for it?

The very definition of self esteem is that it is self administered. If you require others acceptance that by definition does nothing for your self esteem. Suicide rates among trans-genders is just a shade under schizophrenics. While gays do not have even close to the same suicide rates despite oppression. And both have the same complaint of not feeling comfortable in their own bodies.

We treat body dysmophia by pushing Therapy and acceptance of their bodies and we treat transgender by carving them up like a turkey. Neither disorders suicide rate drops even post op. So why are we not teaching transgenders to accept their body as made by nature? As transgender people take hormones they take on the physical traits of the gender they are taking the hormones for. Given that this means that M2F people will look more feminine including developing breasts and the muscle and fat distribution of a woman , and F2M people will look more masculine including developing a beard, deep voice, and muscle and fat distribution of a man.

Are you honestly saying that you would prefer someone that looks like a lumberjack, with a beard and a deep voice shares a changing room with your wife and children just because they were born a female? As your argument cuts both ways. The same is true for F2M people, they have more muscle, hair, beard, lower voice, etc. This is before we start getting into any surgery concerns. So do you want to actually think about your argument and give it another go?

Focus on the mental illnesses developed from experiencing transphobia before you start saying we are all mentally ill. Take with it what you may. Sweety as long as something is not harmful and destructive It is not an illness specially a mental one. You need to know that trans gender people are another creation just like many creations of our world. You can not deny it cause it exists and it is proven. Actually if you get to know us we are good people and love to love and be loved. If you have further question do not hesitate to ask. The root cause is mental illness… hormone therapy and transition surgery will only address the symptoms and not address the real problem.

This is why suicide rates are nearly as high after surgery as before surgery. Your last statement is patently false; the suicide rate after surgery is but a fraction of what it is before surgery. This has been documented. Why not turn your anger toward something to be angry about, like white supremacists and neo-Nazis? So , if you feel like a man and you have female body , my question is how do you know the difference in a male mind and a female mind to be so certain?

Hence the mental perception will still exist. Another amazing observation I have seen in the sudden burst of gender issues is the support groups on tumbler for teens. Teens are asking an anonymous person who they are and what they need to call themselves?! What is wrong in this picture? Sounds like an acceptance issue.

Next the kid tests the waters by talking about a friend and educating the parent Screaming and yelling at home, depression ,anxiety , low self esteem sets in. Next plan talk about suicide and get admitted to a hospital to get the parents to agree for a name change Ask for a therapy dog Ask for surgeries, binders etc Are these the future of a society? Who is coming up with these names and helping them label themselves? Almost feels like it is all planned to the T ps I do know and understand the exceptions and I am not referring to them but to the outburst that is happening in schools and colleges I hope the psychiatric association looks into the influence of social media in this strange behavior and include dysphoria as something that needs to be treated before major surgeries are performed and leave the future youth more handicapped to face life for what is worth.

How long will you just treat the anxiety and depression? Time to address the issue and question some obvious scenarios! One can enjoy life without a gender issue! Happiness has no gender! You obviously have no clue as to what being transgender really is. Being transgender is not a mental illness; the depression, paranoia, and other things that could lead to someone taking their own life come from the scorn, ridicule, and rejection that trans people face because they are transgender.

Being disowned by your parents, rejected by friends and family, fired from your job, evicted from your place of dwelling, or being denied health care simply because you are transgender is enough to send anybody over the edge. Now, you go right ahead and keep preaching about the changing times.

Meanwhile, the rest of the world will be busy living our lives, trying to stay clear of people like you. Good luck with that. I am transpecied.

Ever since I was seven years old I knew that I am a panther stuck in a human body. How awful it has been to live as a human when all I can think of is joining my pack of panthers in the mountains. What he is referring to is biological sex. The last years has not changed that fact. All of the things that define biological sex are still exactly the same today as they were years ago.

We get it. The trans community wants change. You all want it yesterday but the change that you really want is nowhere near in sight. Exploring the human mind, talking about trans issues, are things that are never going to change the above. What will change is that more of society will begin to accept trans people in every way possible excluding sexual relationships. That is not how reality works and that is not how mother nature works. I realize this was posted a while ago, still I need to respond.

If you feel that there are only two genders, why are you seeking these kinds of articles out? Clearly you have questions, as do I. While I cannot begin to imagine the things that those who do not identify as their assigned gender go through, I understand looking in the mirror and not liking what I see. That is difficult, I can change many of the things I do not like, and it would be uncontroversial.

I would probably even get more compliments. I know that I would feel better if those around me saw the me that I feel like I am. Being a cisegender women is hard enough, the pressure is crazy at best. Being a person that is perceived as one gender but feeling like the opposite, or both, or none would be devastating. Every living being deserves respect and equality, that is simple.

Okay, a male who has gone through transition surgery is no longer a male, but a female. Your attempting to have a valid opinion simply by suggesting your belief? Do you have proof? Have you studied gender and all its variables? What is your level of education or even experience with anyone who is transgender?

Yeah thought so! So how do you explain folks who were assigned male at birth, yet turned out to have ovaries? How do you explain those assigned female at birth, who suddenly start growing a penis in puberty instead of breasts? Are you unfamiliar with academic citation? Review the listed citation. If you are unsure where they are located, review the format of an APA format. Some of the research does indicate that for some people there may be a biological basis for feeling more akin to the opposite sex due to atypical hormone exposure in utero.

However the issue is there is no way to test for this in living people — the bstc size can only be observed post mortem. What this means is that many people who identify as trans may not have any biological condition at all. For many it may be psychological or caused by social contagion. The huge rise of young people suddenly developing a trans identity after a stint on the internet or lots of their friends coming out as non binary indicates this may well be an aetiology.

This then leaves the problem of young people being unecessary medicated. For example multiple personality disorder and repressed memory syndrome, both of which were subsequently shown to be incredibly rare. Re the article I picked out one reference which was inaccurately discribing. It is quoted that 1. This is completely untrue. The figure is more like 0. The 1. These are women who in middle age develop an adrenal condition where they produce too much testosterone and start to grow a beard.

Thus they were NOT born with ambiguous gentialia. They were born with entirely typical female genitalia. The internet and social media have merely provided a means of more broadly disseminating information, and thus those with gender dysphoria are able to find a name for their issue, talk to others with it, and find ways to treat it usually hormone replacement therapy, sometimes surgery. Is this your real reasoning for your request or is it simply to drive home your political beliefs so that way you can belittle those with opposing views?

Then that makes it bias nitpicking and not true research. The article is written under the umbrella of Harvard University and yet I see no in-text citations! She then uses empty facts and flawed logic couched in scientific terms to full the reader into overlooking the obvious problems. This entire phenomena is caused by Societal norms being enforced on children, we do not have to conform to anything, but we must respect the body we are born into.

Dress and act as you wish, society has to educate itself to accept these differences, in South Pacific Islands it is automatically accepted and in Native cultures also, we are the ones developing the dysphoria in our children and lives. The pharmaceutical companies are growing rich perpetuating the surgeries and hormones one becomes defendant on for life. We should be free to be who we are and never feel our body is against our brain, that dysphoria is fabricated by the system we live in. Freedom means being subject to much manipulation in our society and this is one of those that un fortunately will destroy many before we educate our civilization on the benefits of acceptance of any gender assumption we partake in.

Instead of classifying brains as male or female, why not embrace the diversity of brains in a particular sex and accept that whatever brain that inhabits a body, be it a male or female body, is the brain of that corresponding sex. It would also be interesting to see a study of the brains of ultra-femme men and butch women to see if they are similar to the majority of brains of the opposite sex.

A revised airway epithelial hierarchy includes CFTR-expressing ionocytes

In addition to that, compare them to the brains of transgender individuals of their corresponding biological sex. Cheryl Li, I like your ideas about the comparative studies. Links and Article Heads would be great. At best there is greater diversity in male brains and female brains than previously supposed and gender roles are too rigid. Yes and no. Both could be true. Brain studies show that whilst overall in populations there are some differences in male and female brains across the population, most people are in the middle. Think of height — men are overall taller than women but there are many taller women and shorter men.

Even if there is a biological spectrum of masculine and feminine it is certain that gender roles are very much socialised as well. The idea that we are a blank slate and socialisation is everything is I think untrue. However socialisation can also play a large role as does culture in general. Alas, it does not work that way. Transsexual suffer from dysphoria which can be compared to having a throbbing psychic toothache, or if you have the good fortune of never having had a toothache, then maybe a persistent itch you cannot scratch.

There is psychological damage that transsexuals go through. We have some of the highest rates of suicide of any group and suffer a high rate of homicide. This stems from societal rejection sometimes from nuclear families and from the persistent feeling that our bodies and social roles are plain wrong. However, with treatment, we can get relief. My sincere hope is that another generation does not have to go through an irreversible and disfiguring puberty before getting medical help. Norman Spack, MD, now in retirement it seems, over at Boston Child Hospital and affiliated with Harvard Medical School has been instrumental in bringing what is often called the Dutch Protocol to help trans youth.

In short, we do not need to study these children and leave them in bodies they loath. We need to help them. Children are unreliable, and the younger they are the more unreliable they are. I was assigned boy at birth. I did not grow out of it. I was deeply harmed by having to go through an irreversible and disfiguring male puberty.

I was reliable in my assertions. I insisted I was a girl for 20 years and your 30 days playing with an easy bake oven testimony a hollow testimony to the real pain than real transsexuals dealt with for decades. Stop forcing your false narratives down the throats of real transsexuals.

Can you explain why you did and what it felt like? You have to be kidding me… Deeply harmed… disfiguring male puberty…. You act as if your parents could have stopped that. Lucky for you there is in-depth science now and you can live as you please. Shame on you for hating your parents for doing what they thought to be right.

The fact is that some kids who experience symptoms of dysphoria when they are young will grow out of it, while others will develop into full-blown dysphoria. The solution this study proposes is to administer hormone therapy at age 14, but not everyone is mature enough to make such a huge decision at that age.

Life altering decisions are made. Putting a child through a puberty of a sex they do not affirm creates problems for the person for the rest of their life. You are right that many patients will decide not to transition, but that shows up at puberty. The kid will decide to go with the assigned birth. The bone density issue is speculative and seems not to be a factor. The alternative is to start cross sex hormones in middle school and some places are doing that where insurance is not covering blockers. I totally disagree. I thought I was a girl for 20 years starting at age 6. However this was not widely available a the time.

I cried when I started puberty and felt misgendered when straight women were attracted to me because I saw myself as a woman and presented very femme. I was an effeminate bisexual man not a woman. But in childhood I had absorbed the idea I could not be a boy and have the interests and proclivities I had. Thank goodness I was not brought up now. I understand for you it may have been an underlying and permanent confidition but the problem is children are easily influenced and do not know their own minds- or at least can not be sure until they are grown up.

For every child saved from natural puberty we risk putting children through unecessary treatment. Here lies the issue. The idea of sterilising children on the basis of an untestable self diagnosis strikes me as incredibly dubious. Many children who would grow up to be gay may misdiag nose themselves as trans before they realise their sexuality. I like your thinking. I have an opinion, I have no evidence, but simply an intuition, that gender as an expression is commonly different in every individual.

Long story short, I claimed that men and women are actually just large social group in society that almost everyone belongs to.